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SOC2 101: Everything You Need to Know It

In an era where data breaches make headlines and businesses increasingly rely on technology, robust security measures' significance cannot be understated. SOC2, or Service Organization Control 2, has emerged to establish trust with stakeholders. It ensures that service providers securely manage data to protect the interests and privacy of their business partners.

Developed by the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA), it presents a standardized solution to address these concerns. By obtaining a SOC2 attestation, businesses send a powerful message to clients, investors, and partners: they prioritize security, operate with integrity, and are equipped to handle sensitive information responsibly.

This guide aims to demystify SOC2, offering insights into its foundational principles, the attestation process, and importance. You'll get a comprehensive understanding of its significance, the core criteria that form its backbone, and practical steps to achieve attestation.

Why SOC2 Matters: Top Benefits

As a business, you must build trust—trust that processes are efficient, systems are secure, and commitments are honored. The SOC2 attestation elucidates a business's commitment to best practices and client security. Its benefits stretch far and wide, encompassing areas from stakeholder trust to heightened security protocols.

Enhanced Trust with Clients and Stakeholders

Information is more than just data—it's an asset, often a company's most valuable asset. When businesses undergo SOC2 attestation, they tell their clients and stakeholders that their information is safe.

In an environment where data breaches and leaks are alarmingly commonplace, the mere assurance of SOC2 compliance is a seal of trust. Stakeholders and partners become more confident in their association with the company, knowing that rigorous standards are met and maintained, ensuring that data and processes are securely managed.

Competitive Advantage in the Marketplace

Standing out can be challenging in a bustling market with contenders vying for customer attention. When customers are scouting for services, a SOC2 certification can be the deciding factor, positioning the company as a responsible and secure choice.

As more industries and regulations mandate stringent security measures and data protection protocols, SOC2 compliance is necessary. It signals potential clients that the company is forward-thinking, proactive, and ever-prepared to tackle such complexities.

Strengthened Internal Security and Operational Practices

Achieving SOC2 attestation catalyzes a transformation within. The process pushes businesses to introspect, evaluate, and enhance their internal security mechanisms and operational practices. This introspection often leads to identifying vulnerabilities that may have otherwise remained obscured, providing an opportunity to fortify defenses.

The path to SOC2 attestation instills a culture of continuous improvement. Teams become more aligned with security objectives, promoting collaborative efforts to maintain and elevate standards. This holistic improvement goes beyond compliance, nurturing an environment where security becomes second nature to every operation.

Assurance for Potential and Existing Customers

When a business displays its SOC2 attestation, it sends a clear message to potential and existing customers: "We prioritize your security." This assurance can catalyze choosing one service provider over another for potential customers.

Existing customers, on the other hand, find comfort in continuity. Knowing that their chosen service provider continually renews and upholds their SOC2 attestation reinforces their decision to stay. It acts as a reaffirmation of the company's unwavering commitment to safeguarding its data, assets, and trust.

SOC2 At a Glance

As companies increasingly leverage technology and data to drive their operations, ensuring the integrity and security of these processes becomes paramount.

Enter SOC2: an attestation framework tailored for the modern era. Developed by the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA), SOC2 is a testament to a service organization's commitment to safeguarding customer data, ensuring its availability, maintaining its integrity, and preserving its confidentiality. It's a robust framework that sets the gold standard for organizational cybersecurity and operational excellence.

However, SOC2 isn't just about technicalities and compliance checkboxes. It symbolizes a holistic approach to business operations, intertwining security, trust, and customer commitment. By adhering to SOC2 standards, businesses fortify their internal processes and project an image of reliability and trustworthiness to the world.

Definition and Primary Goals of SOC2

SOC2 is a set of standard criteria to manage information security. A SOC2 audit evaluates a company's adherence to these criteria, generating an audit report the company can later share with interested parties.

Its primary goal is to ensure and attest that companies operate under strict guidelines to safeguard the privacy and security of customer data. SOC2 focuses on five Trust Service Criteria (TSC): Security, Availability, Processing Integrity, Confidentiality, and Privacy. Each has been meticulously crafted to ensure that organizations adopt the best practices, thus offering their customers assurance about the safety and integrity of their data.

Types of SOC2 Reports

SOC2 offers two distinct types of reports, each serving a specific purpose and showcasing varying degrees of thoroughness.

  • Type I: Evaluates and verifies the design of an organization's controls at a specific point in time. It ensures that rules are suitably designed to meet the relevant criteria. While Type I confirms the establishment of proper controls, it doesn't delve into the operational effectiveness of these controls.

  • Type II: Assesses the design and the operational effectiveness of the controls over a period of time. It's a more in-depth evaluation, ensuring the controls are appropriately designed and function effectively and consistently over time.

The Five Trust Service Criteria (TSC)

When evaluating the depth and breadth of SOC2, the Five Trust Service Criteria (TSC) serves as its cornerstone. These are the core values and objectives underpinning the SOC2 framework. Each criterion represents a different dimension of how organizations should handle and safeguard data, ensuring that all aspects of data management, from security to user privacy, are comprehensively addressed.


Emphasizes safeguarding systems and information from unauthorized access, intrusions, and damage. Includes encryption, multi-factor authentication, stringent access controls, and business-related controls, such as policy lifecycle process or having the board of directors oversee the operations.

It demands businesses to employ a robust set of protective measures. By adhering to this, companies ensure they're resilient against cyberattacks, data breaches, and other malicious intent.


System downtimes can cause operational hiccups and tarnish a company's reputation when supporting clients' critical operations.

The Availability criterion stresses that systems, applications, and network infrastructures must be operational and available for use as promised or contractually agreed upon.

This encompasses monitoring network performance, conducting regular backups, and implementing disaster recovery protocols. The goal is simple: ensure uninterrupted service and uphold the company's service commitments.

Processing Integrity

At the heart of any data-driven operation is the trust that the data is processed accurately, completely, and validly.

Processing Integrity is about ensuring the system does what it's supposed to and does it right. It's not just about preventing system errors; it's about ensuring that transactions are processed timely, in the correct sequence, and accurately. Any deviations, anomalies, or irregularities must be promptly identified and rectified.


Businesses that handle sensitive information, be it trade secrets, business plans, or customer data, are responsible for shielding this information from prying eyes.

The Confidentiality criterion is centered on restricting access to only those who need it, employing encryption techniques, and regularly reviewing and updating confidentiality protocols. In essence, businesses must uphold the promise of discretion and protection they make to their stakeholders.


With growing global awareness about data privacy and the rights of individuals, the Privacy criterion is more relevant than ever.

It focuses on the collection, storage, usage, retention, and disposal of personal information in a manner respectful of individual rights and accordance with privacy policies. Adherence to this criterion means businesses comply with global data protection regulations and prioritize and respect the personal information of their clients, employees, and partners.

Understanding SOC2 Controls

SOC2 compliance is not merely a checkbox exercise against technical specifications. It's a profound business transformation by implementing internal controls that will provide safeguards to your customers. Each control supports one or more criteria defined by the SOC2 standards.

Every organization has its distinct attributes and nuances. Consequently, the internal controls that fit one entity might require adjustments for another. Here is a foundational understanding, priming you for the intricacies of the SOC2 transformation and subsequent audit process.

Administrative Controls

Policies, procedures, and training modules are at the core of any organization's security posture. Administrative controls are the guiding principles and directives that staff must adhere to. These include:

Policies: Detailed documentation outlining the company's security, privacy, and operational standards. This could encompass data handling policies, privacy guidelines, or disaster response frameworks.

Procedures: Step-by-step guidelines on executing specific tasks or operations in alignment with the set policies, ensuring consistency and compliance across the board.

Training: Continuous education modules for employees, ensuring they're up-to-date with the latest security best practices and are equipped to recognize and thwart potential threats.

People Management: Guarantee background checks happen before employment, address proper interview processes and adhere to policies and procedures.

Risk Management: Risk assessments aim to identify and mitigate potential risks, and these measures are supported at an executive level.

Physical Controls

Beyond the digital realm, physical security ensures that the tangible assets of an organization, such as servers or data centers, are shielded from unauthorized access or environmental hazards.

Data Center Security: Implement strict access protocols, surveillance systems, and monitoring to ensure only authorized personnel can access critical infrastructure.

Access Controls: Physical barriers like biometric authentication, security cards, or guards that restrict access to sensitive areas.

Disaster Recovery: Plans and infrastructure in place to restore data and operations in case of physical disruptions, be it due to natural calamities or other incidents.

HVAC Systems: Temperature and humidity controls to ensure servers and data centers operate under optimal conditions.

Fire Suppression: Systems in place to detect and counteract fire, ensuring minimal damage and quick recovery.

Flood Prevention: Infrastructure like sump pumps or elevated installations to prevent water damage.

Technical Controls

These are the technologies and tools used to safeguard digital assets and data.

Encryption: Encoding data ensures that only those with the proper decryption key can access it. This includes encrypting data at rest and in transit.

Network Security: Measures like firewalls, intrusion detection systems, and regular vulnerability assessments to safeguard against cyber threats.

Access Controls: Digital measures like multi-factor authentication, role-based access, and password policies that restrict and monitor who can access what within the system.

Backup and Recovery: Regular backups of critical data and processes to ensure backup recovery is always available and operational.

Patch Management: All systems are up-to-date, with regular patches applied, and proper asset management identifies vulnerable systems.

Audit and Monitoring: User and systems activities are monitored, and audit reports are generated. This includes generating logs and their regular review.

Procedural Controls

These controls address the operational aspect of the systems, ensuring day-to-day tasks are conducted securely and efficiently.

User Authentication: Processes to verify the identity of users accessing the system, ensuring data is accessed only by those authorized.

Change Management: Guidelines and processes for introducing updates or modifications in the system, ensuring they don't introduce vulnerabilities or disrupt operations.

Incident Response: Protocols detailing the steps to take in case of a security incident or breach, ensuring swift action and mitigation of potential damage.

Vendor Management: Processes for vendor selection, audit, and risk assessment on external third parties and standards for contractual agreements.


SOC2 Compliance Process: Step-by-Step

SOC2 compliance is a transformational journey that reshapes how an organization approaches security. Before requesting an audit, an organization examines its security postures and practices and identifies any disparities against SOC2 Trust Service Criteria (TSCs).

A SOC2 report is a comprehensive blueprint mapping each criterion the TSCs delineates to the organization's specific internal controls. This structured approach ensures that every facet of the SOC2 criteria finds a corresponding internal control that the organization adheres to.

Once an organization believes its controls are in place, a third-party auditor steps onto the stage. Their mission? To probe, scrutinize, and validate each claim the organization makes. This auditor will demand tangible evidence supporting each control the organization claims to have.

When it comes to a SOC 2 Type I audit, the focus shifts towards the design and architecture of these controls. Think of it as the blueprint phase—screenshots of deployed systems, reports outlining access management protocols, documented policies, etc.

Contrastingly, a SOC 2 Type II audit examines the effectiveness of these controls in real-world scenarios. Here, the auditor will want evidence you've put them in practice over the observation period (often, the past 6 or 12 months). They'll ask for reports of personnel or identified vulnerabilities and selectively sample from these lists, probing evidence your organization executed the internal controls appropriately.

Preliminary Assessment (gap analysis):

This is the stage where you critically examine your organization's security posture and practices against the SOC2 standards. The primary objectives include:

  • Understanding the current state of your organization's controls and assessing how they align with SOC2 requirements.

  • Identifying areas where controls may be lacking, weak, or even non-existent.

  • Prioritizing areas of improvement and planning a roadmap for the subsequent remediation phase.


Once the gaps are identified, this phase is about rectifying those vulnerabilities and ensuring the organization aligns with SOC2 standards.

  • Implementing new controls or enhancing existing ones based on the findings from the gap analysis.

  • Engaging with internal teams and potentially third-party consultants to address specific weaknesses.

  • Documenting the changes and improvements made will be essential during the audit phase.

Readiness Assessment:

Before diving into the formal audit, ensuring that all preparations are in place is prudent.

  • Conducting a mock audit to simulate the actual SOC2 audit process. This helps in identifying any last-minute oversights.

  • Reviewing documentation, policies, and procedures to ensure everything is comprehensive and updated.

  • Engaging with stakeholders and making them aware of the impending audit, ensuring they are prepared and informed.

Formal SOC2 Audit:

This is the critical phase where an external auditor reviews and assesses the organization's controls and practices.

  • The auditor, typically from a third-party firm, will rigorously examine the organization's controls, documentation, and evidence of compliance.

  • They will also engage with employees, conduct interviews, and test procedures to ensure they are followed as documented.

  • At the end of this phase, the auditor will provide a report detailing their findings, including areas of compliance and any exceptions or discrepancies they might have identified.

Continuous Monitoring & Renewal:

Compliance is not a one-time achievement. It's an ongoing commitment.

  • Continuously monitor controls to remain effective and updated as the organization grows or evolves.

  • Regular internal reviews and mini-assessments to ensure continued adherence to SOC2 standards.

  • Organizations must undergo a renewal audit every 12 months to maintain their SOC2 attestation. This ensures that the organization stays updated with any changes to the SOC2 criteria and continues to operate at the required standard.

Common Challenges and How to Overcome Them

Each company's experience might vary, but almost every organization faces a set of common challenges. Recognizing them early on and devising strategies to address them is crucial. Companies must identify the underlying obstacles regarding mindset, technical infrastructure, and business operations.

1. Cultural Resistance and Behavior Change:

New controls might challenge established workflows and practices, leading to resistance from employees who see these measures as impediments rather than safeguards. Teams might be wary of surrendering the freedoms they're used to.

  • Engage and Educate: Ensure the team understands each control's importance and rationale. Open dialogues and training sessions can dispel misconceptions.

  • Incremental Implementation: Instead of a complete overhaul, consider phased introductions of controls to allow teams to adjust gradually.

  • Feedback Channels: Set up channels where teams can voice their concerns or suggest alternatives, promoting a sense of participation and ownership.

2. Technical Challenges and Infrastructure Changes:

Specific security measures might demand extensive changes depending on the existing technological infrastructure. The shift might be as monumental as moving from physical servers to a cloud environment or revamping codebases to incorporate security features.

  • External Help: Collaborate with experts or outsource specific tasks to firms familiar with cutting-edge technologies and their security implications.

  • Cloud Leveraging: To reduce the need for physical controls, consider transitioning to cloud environments, which often come with built-in security features.

  • Regular Audits & Testing: Frequent vulnerability assessments can pinpoint areas that need attention before they become significant issues.

3. Data Management and Awareness:

In many organizations, data sprawls across multiple platforms without a clear catalog or structured flow, making it a daunting task to implement controls.

  • Data Mapping: Understand and document data flows across the organization. This not only aids in control implementation but also boosts overall data management efficiency.

  • Dedicated Data Teams: Consider having dedicated teams or personnel for data governance, ensuring constant oversight.

4. Balancing Security with Innovation:

There's a lingering perception that security measures stifle innovation. Product and engineering teams might feel constrained by new controls, fearing that these would impede their creative processes.

  • Collaborative Workshops: Organize sessions where product, engineering, and security teams can collaboratively brainstorm solutions that maintain security without hampering innovation.

  • Adaptive Security Models: Instead of rigid controls, implement adaptive security measures that can evolve with the changing needs of innovative teams.

5. Ever-evolving Cybersecurity Landscape

Achieving and maintaining SOC2 compliance can be resource-intensive, and the cyber threats aren't static. Cybercriminals devise new tactics every day, and vulnerabilities in systems can emerge. Compliance requires sustained effort to ensure that controls remain effective and that the organization continuously meets the SOC2 standards, even as the organization grows or evolves.

  • Strategic Resource Allocation: Prioritize and allocate resources based on the most critical areas. External consultants can assist in areas lacking in-house expertise.

  • Staying Educated: Encourage teams to attend workshops, webinars, and conferences. Join cybersecurity forums and networks to exchange information and learn about emerging threats.

  • Automated Monitoring Tools: Tools can monitor systems in real-time for any breaches or vulnerabilities and also generate alerts for immediate action.

  • Regular Training & Drills: Simulated cyber-attack drills can prepare your team to respond effectively in real scenarios.

  • Dedicated Security Teams: If resources permit, have a team periodically review the controls, ensure they're effective, and update them as necessary based on feedback from the various departments and changes in the cybersecurity landscape.


While opening doors to innovation and growth, the digital era has also opened the door to data breaches, cyber threats, and privacy concerns. In this landscape, SOC2 audits attest to your organization's commitment to safeguarding stakeholder interests, maintaining data integrity, and upholding the highest standards of operational excellence. More than a requirement, it reflects responsibility, trust, and reliability.

Embarking on the SOC2 journey is not without its challenges. However, addressing these challenges elevates the organization in the eyes of clients, stakeholders, and the industry. It positions the company as a forward-thinking entity that values security, privacy, and reliability just as much as it loves innovation and growth.

The journey towards SOC2 might be demanding, but the rewards in terms of trust, credibility, and business growth are immeasurable. Dive deeper, educate yourself, collaborate with experts, and set your organization on a path to compliance and excellence.

If you're unsure where to start or how to navigate the complexities, we at NexaEdge are here to help. Let our expertise be the guiding light on your SOC2 journey. Reach out, and let's ensure that your business is secure and ready to confidently embrace the future.

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